The Gruter Institute Classics in Law and Biology is part of the research program of the Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research, which brings together an interdisciplinary network of scholars from the United States and Europe.

This collection republishes classic papers, including papers already published in Gruter Institute books. Readers are welcome to download the papers for their own use, and professors can freely circulate these papers to students for the purpose of teaching.

Please note: Some of this material has been scanned from hard-to-find or out-of-print publications. We apologize in advance for any formatting irregularities. Your feedback on the materials is welcome via email to .


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Browse the The Gruter Institute Classics Series Collections:

Law, Biology and Culture: The Evolution of Law

Ostracism: A Social and Biological Phenomenon